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Internet Terminology Deciphered
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This is a top-level domain name intended for the use of businesses. The .biz extension was initiated in 2001 and was established to relieve the great craving for .com domains.
.com actually means commercial. .com is a top-level domain and is one of the earliest top-level extensions, created in 1985. At the moment the .com domain extension is the best used domain on the World Wide Web. The .com extension can be used by any woman or man or company globally.
The .edu domain extension is a top-level domain meant for educational organisations. The .edu domain extension was inaugurated in nineteen-eighty-five.
The .net extension was one of the first domain name domains founded, commenced in the early months of nineteen-eighty-five. The .net domain was intially initiated for the use of network oriented entities such as internet service providers (ISPs). Right now there are no limit on who can and cannot register extensions with a .net extension.
The .org domain extension was one of the initial top-level extensions, primarily inaugurated for the use of entities. The .org extension was created in the New Year of 1985 and is now accessible to all net consumers.
A bitmap image format, Graphics Interchange Format was started in 1987 and is a prevalent arrangement used across the Internet.
Created by Joint Photographic Experts Group, the .jpeg or .jpg (also known as a JPEG) is a universal format for the compression of . The .jpeg is a prevailing form commonly in use across the World Wide Web for looking after and transmitting image files.
A file formation developed by Apple Computer. The .mov domain is employed to look at files through the Quicktime media player.
The term .mpeg means "Motion Picture Experts Group". .mpeg applies to a group of compression standards for coding audiovisual knowledge.
The .zip is a well-known file compression configuration used the world over
Similar to the 10BaseT, although the 100BaseT runs at 100 Megabits per second. 100Base T is a 100 Megabit per second Ethernet protocol which allows ports to be linked via a pair of twisted cables. Signals are transmitted at 100 Megabits per second.
A 10 Megabit per second Ethernet protocol which permits ports to be connected via a pair of twisted cables. Signals are transmitted at 10 Megabits per second and the "T" literally means the twisted pair cables.
An A record is a unit of a zone file, which is used to divert domain names to a certain IP address.
Access is known as a relational database introduced by Microsoft that works in a Windows context. It is employed by all levels of developers who wish to create and process information.
Used in Microsoft net Explorer, Active Channel is employed on websites which frequently update content.
ActiveX is a technology brought out by Microsoft, it grants software components to interact with one another in a networked background. ActiveX is related to other Microsoft technologies such as Object Linking and Embedding as well as segment Object Model.
ADSL correctly means Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop. ADSL is a technology which enables greater data to be transferred across existing copper telephone lines. ADSL is a accepted form of DSL technology which is used by many homes and small businesses. The download speed is very often much greater than the upload speed.
Anonymous FTP grants users to receive access of files, programs, and documents which have been archived on the Internet and available to all. A specific user identification or password is not necessary in order to login to an anonymous FTP site.
A Java application which can present animation and database queries. The material can be sent from a web server to a user's computer and executed on the client.
Archie is a search tool which retrieves specific files stored on anonymous FTP sites.
ARPANet stands for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. ARPANet was started in the 1960's by the United States Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area networking as a method of communication in the event of a nuclear attack. ARPANet can be considered as the precursor to the internet.
ASP literally stands for Active Server Pages. ASP is a web server domain extension originated by Microsoft. ASP grants websites to be dynamically established via scripts, HTML, and ActiveX.
ATM actually stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode, which is a technology based on transferring advice groups over a dedicated connection. ATM permits the transmission of different types of data such as video and audio.
An acronym for the American Standard Code for info Interchange. ASCII is a normal set of codes used for the representation of characters, numbers, symbols, and control characters in data communication and storage.
A backbone is made up of high-speed lines and connections which serve as the main network connections that produce the World Wide Web.
the amount of instruction that can be transferred over a specific network across a particular amount of time. Bandwidth is commonly measured in Megabits per second.
A rate of data transfer which is based upon the numbers (usually bits) transferred per second.
An acronym for Bulletin Board System, BBS is a conformity commonly used the net which permits people to share instruction and messages with each other.
A method employed to transfer files from a non-text format into ASCII text.
Binary Digit, a bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can recognize.
An acronym for Because It's Time Network, is a format that enables academic and research facilities to remain allied. The BITNET network is normally used for email, file transfers, and mailing lists.
an abbreviation for Bits per Second, BPS is the measurement of the number of bits that can be transferred over a certain network.
A software program employed to see and navigate the Internet.
An acronym mainly employed online in various forms of messaging. BTW is shorthand for "by the way".
A byte is a series of eight bits which collectively represent a single character.
A third party which performs the duties of a notary across the internet. A certificate authority is an authority in a network that issues and manages security credentials for message encryption and decryption over the World Wide Web.
CGI is an acronym for Common Gateway Interface and allows pages created with HTML to interact with programming applications.
A CGI-BIN is a storage folder that contains CGI scripts.
A computer with the ability to contact and retrieve advice for a server program or another computer.
Refers to the situation where the owner of a server has his/her server physically located at a data center owned by another business.
A software application that creates dynamic database driven HTML pages.
When an individual registers a domain, the registrar of the domain name maintains the contact material for the technical, billing, and administrative contact.
An individual, often a programmer, who breaks into computer systems in order to steal or alter info.
A term coined in 1984 by author William Gibson in order to describe the world of computers and the society which is gathered around computers. The entire internet could be categorized as "cyberspace".
"DNS" is short for the extension System, which is the totality that translates Internet domains into IP numbers.
An advanced form of web hosting where the customer generally has complete control over the server. Dedicated Servers are almost always housed in data centers. Dedicated servers may be compared to shared web hosting servers; where in shared hosting you find the web hosting entity administering and control the server, a dedicated server is commonly controlled by the server's owner and he or she controls which websites are hosted on the server.
Digerati is the digital version of literati and consists of elite individuals in the computer and online communities.
A domain is the unique name that identifies an net site. A domain is the text name corresponding to the numeric IP address of a computer on the Internet.
"Domain Parking" is a specific status of a domain name following the completion of its registration. Rather than placing an active website for a specific extension, an individual can decide to hold the domain and not do anything active with the extension.
The process by which a organization or individual selects a domain name and later officially registers the domain through an approved extension registrar.
An individual or organisation who is the owner and the man or woman(s) involved with the registration of a domain name.
A organization that is accredited by the net Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers in order to provide domain name registration services for a fee.
A extension registry has two main tasks. One task is giving out domains under their top level extension to those who ask for them; and the other task is making the database of domain name registrations attainable around the world.
domains are registered by the year and once the registered extension expires, the registrant has the option of either keeping the domain and "renewing" the registration or he/she can decide to cancel the registration service and allow the public to register the domain name.
The function that converts a domain, whether private or on the public World Wide Web, into an IP address.
To renew a domain name with a registrar who was not the registrar who originally provided the registration service, an owner must first transfer sponsorship of the extension to the new registrar.
Electric commerce: the conducting of business communication and transactions over networks and through computers. Specifically, ecommerce is the buying and selling of goods and services, and the transfer of funds, through digital communications.
Electronic mail: Mail composed and transmitted on a computer system or network.
A method of networking computers in a local area network (LAN).
FAQ's are widely used on the internet and typically provide a good mechanism of gaining an overview on a topic.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. FDDI is a 100 Mbps fiber optic LAN. It is an ANSI recognized. It utilises a "counter-rotated" Token ring topology. An FDDI LAN is generally known as a "backbone" LAN. It is employed for joining file servers together and for joining other LANs together.
An World Wide Web software tool for locating people on other internet sites.
A Firewall is a complex which limits network access between two or more networks. Normally, a Firewall is deployed between a trusted, protected private network and an untrusted public network.
An argument or ongoing sequence of hostile communications between two or more people in a public forum on the Internet.
A Microsoft application that can be used as an end-to-end Web site management tool.
File Transfer Protocol: The typical net protocol for transferring files from one computer to another.
A computer utilidor that connects two incompatible services such as a commercial online service and the Internet.
A unit of storage measurement consisting of one billion bytes (one thousand megabytes).
A program which uses a network of interlinked menus for accessing publicly distributed resources and documents on computers distributed across the internet.
In the context of visitors to web pages, a hit (or site hit) is a single access request made to the server for either a text file or a graphic.
The main page of a Web site. Typically, the home page serves as an index or table of contents to other documents stored at the website.
A computer coupled to the net.
The service which offers accessibility and maintenance of disk space on which an World Wide Web web site is located. Ultimate Domains UK is a web hosting leader and grants web hosting services to persons and businesses all over the world.
Hypertext Markup Language is the authoring software language used on the Internet's net. HTML is employed for creating internet pages.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
This term describes the classification that grants documents to be cross- linked in such a way that the reader can explore related documents by clicking on a highlighted word or symbol.
Index Server is an advanced search engine. An Index Server allows for an efficient search of your web site since it is fully customizable and can be set not to require constant re-indexing.
A worldwide network of computers that permits the "sharing" or "networking" of information at remote sites from other academic institutions, research institutes, private companies, government agencies, and individuals.
A private network that is contained within an enterprise, which utilises internet protocols.
Internet Protocol. A packet-based protocol for delivering data across networks.
(Internet Protocol Address) A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, eg 18.104.22.168 Every machine that is on the net has a unique IP address - if a machine does not have an IP address, it is not really on the World Wide Web. Most machines also have one or more domain names that are easier for people to remember.
Internet Relay Chat. A live chat area of the Internet in which real-time conversations among two or more people take place via special software. Each specific IRC channel begins with a # and is dedicated to a different area of interest. IRC is considered another part of the technology of the internet the same way FTP, Telnet and the Web are.
Integrated Services Digital Network. An international staple for end-to-end digital transmission of voice, data, and signaling. In a videoconference it is a combination that gives simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems.
Internet Service Provider. A entity that ministers access to the net. Before you can connect to the World Wide Web you must first start an account with an ISP.
Java is a programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java programs (or "applets") can be downloaded from the Internet to your computer. They can also be employed to enhance Web pages. Common Java applets used on Web pages include animation, calculators, and counters.
The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun product aimed at Java developers. Since the introduction of Java, it has been by far the most widely used Java SDK.
A thousand bytes. To be more accurate, one kilobyte actually contains 1024 bytes. Since the prefix "kilo" is associated with 1000, the term kilobyte is employed to define 1024 bytes.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a local area, like a home, office or small group of buildings such as a college.
A dedicated telephone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hours-a-day, 7-days-a-week use from one location to another.
Linux is a free open-source operating setup based on Unix. Linux was originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers from around the globe. Ultimate Domains UK provides its customers with linux web hosting solutions and services.
Mailing list program for communicating with other people who have subscribed to the same list. Using e-mail, you can participate in listservs pertaining to your topics of interest. When you submit a message to the server, your message is relayed to all those on the listserv. You receive messages from other participants via e-mail. It is similar to computer conferencing, but a listserv is asynchronous.
A way for you to type your username and password to gain access to restricted advice or websites. A login is also a security measure for computer networks. A login ensures administrators that only authorized individuals are gaining access to network resources.
An e-mail organization that includes multiple recipients as part of its address. List servers maintain a list of email addresses to be employed for the mailing list. Subscribing and unsubscribing to the list is accomplished by sending a properly formatted email message to the list server. There are two types of mailing lists: moderated and unmoderated.
A unit of measurement equal to 1 million bytes or 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI is a standardized protocol for communication between electronic music devices as well as between those devices and computers.
Multipurpose Internet Mail extensions. A protocol for internet e-mail that enables the transmission of non-text data such as graphics, audio, video and other binary types of files.
A computer scheme that contains a duplicate copy of instruction stored in another structure. In Search Engine Marketing, mirrors are often used in an effort to target different keywords or keyword phrases. However the use of mirrors is against the Search Engines Guidelines and could get your site banned from the Search Engines.
A device that enables computer material to be sent over a telephone line. Modems convert the digital signal to analog so it can travel the phone line and then back to digital again for processing.
A function where contact info or DNS knowledge can be updated to reflect new changes pertaining to a extension. Administrative and Technical Contacts have the ability to modify domain instruction. You can Log In using your User ID and Password after you have registered a domain name and make on-line modifications to your contact record and DNS information. Also known as an SQL command used to update currently existing records in a table.
Multiuser Object-Oriented environment. Derived from MUD (Multiuser Dungeon), MOO offers people a way to communicate in real time with objects using just a shell account. Some MOOs are employed in academic environments for distance education or collaboration such as Diversity University; but others are originally social in nature, or employed for role-playing games (RPGs).
Mosaic is a web browser (client) for the net written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Its development began in 1992 and officially ceased on January 7, 1997. The popularity of this program has caused its name to be frequently used as a generic term to refer to browsers of the world wide web.
Similar to a MOO (Multi Object Oriented game), a MUD is a multi-user simulation setting. They are text-based environments in which many users are able to communicate and construct an encompassment in 'real-time.'
Multi-User Simulated habitat -- One kind of MUD - normally with little or no violence.
Mail eXchange Record is an entry in a extension database that specifies a mail server to handle a domain's email. If a host has three MX records, a mailer will try to deliver to all three before queuing the mail.
An advanced version of the Windows operating entity. Windows NT is a 32-bit operating arrangement that supports preemptive multitasking. There are actually two versions of Windows NT: Windows NT Server, designed to act as a server in networks and Windows NT Workstation for stand-alone or client workstations.
Name servers are setup to maintain host addresses for each sub-domain or zone within the name space as well as to maintain the address of root name server. Using recursive, queries or referring clients to other servers, a DNS server is capable of resolving the IP address for any host in the World Wide Web.
Network etiquette; an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the World Wide Web.
Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the internet, or someone who uses networked resources. The term cannotes civic responsibility and participation.
A group of computers, united by a telecommunications link, that share info. A network could be composed of any combination of LANs, or WANs.
Network material Center: An organization which implements network consumers with advice about services provided by the network. One of the most famous of these on the Internet is the InterNIC, which is where new extensions are registered.
Network News Transfer Protocol. A common method by which articles over Usenet are transferred. Node
Any device that is directly affiliated to a network, very often through an Ethernet cable. Nodes include file servers and shared peripherals.
A fiber optic line carrying 155 megabits per second; a United States designation that is usually recognized throughout the telecommunications community all around the earth.
A method of switching data in a network. Individual packets of a set size and format are accepted by the network and delivered to their destination. The sequence of packets is maintained, and destination introduced, by the exchange of control knowledge(also contained in the packets) between the sending terminal and the network before the transmission starts. The network is open to all users, all the time, with packets from the various nodes being interleaved throughout the network.
a group of characters that is employed to access something, such as checking e-mail. At Ultimate Domains UK we recommend you use a password that has both numbers and letters and is not a comprised of a stock word, such as a word found in the dictionary.
A plugin is a program written by someone that is integrated into another application. The program plugs into the application. Plugins almost always provide additional functionality that isn't accessible in the application.
Post Office Protocol refers to a way that e-mail client software such as Outlook gets mail from a mail server. Point of Presence asserts to an access point to the net. Ultimate Domains UK hosting accounts come with POP3 email support and hosting.
Port - One of the network input/output channels of a computer running TCP/IP. In the internet, port commonly makes reference to the port number a server is running on. A single computer can have many Web servers running on it, but only one server can be running on each port. The default port for Internet servers is 80.
A single message entered into a network communications complex, for example posting to a newsgroup, blog, or message board.
Point to Point Protocol. Protocol encapsulating a connection to a TCP/IP network through a modem and a telephone line.
The process of updating a domain name across the world's net servers. Propagation can take between three to five days. For more information please contact Ultimate Domains UK's customer support for knowledge on domain propagation.
RFC, which correctly stands for Request For Comments is an World Wide Web document. RFC is the name given to discussion and documentation papers for net standards.
A device or setup that finds the best route between any two networks, even if there are several networks to traverse. It also chooses the best path between two networks when there are multiple paths. Some people view a router as a super intelligent bridge.
A large set of instruction (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
A server is a computer that handles requests for data, email, file transfers, and other network services from other computers. All Ultimate Domains UK web hosting accounts are located on a server, if you would like more advice on Ultimate Domains UK hosting products please visit the Ultimate Domains UK Products page.
A technology established by Macromedia, Inc. that allows Web pages to include multimedia objects. Shockwave player is the web stock for multimedia playback over the internet. It grants the user to look at interactive 3D content, entertainment and online learning material. Ultimate Domains UK web sites support Shockwave therefore your site can include multimedia objects.
SLIP correctly stands for Serial Line Internet Protocol. SLIP refers to a method of World Wide Web connection that grants computers to use phone lines and a modem to connect to the internet without having to connect to a host. Today SLIP is not widely employed especially when compared to years past.
SMDS actually means Switched Multimegabit Data Service. SMDS is a public, packet-based network service aimed at enterprises that exchange large amounts of data with other enterprises over a WAN on a non-constant or bursty basis. SMDS imparts packet switched bandwidth, on demand, in increments up to 34 megabits.
SMTP correctly means Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, which is a protocol used to send and receive email. Ultimate Domains UK email hosting servers support SMTP.
SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP is a protocol governing network management and the monitoring of network devices and their functions. It is normally employed with TCP/IP networks, although it is not limited to TCP/IP networks. A host receiving an SNMP trap must be configured so it can respond to the trap.
Spam asserts to electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more typically as any unsolicited e-mail. Spam is considered to be very bad netiquette. Ultimate Domains UK email hosting services help protect users from spam email getting into their inbox.
Structured Query Language (SQL), pronounced "sequel", is a language that equips an interface to relational database systems. SQL can also be used to update, insert, and delete data. Ultimate Domains UK web hosting plans support SQL.
The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a almost always-employed protocol for managing the security of a message transmission over the Internet. Sockets makes reference to the sockets method of passing data back and forth between a client and a server program in a network or between program layers in the same computer. SSL uses the public-and private-key encryption arrangement, which includes the use of a digital certificate. All Ultimate Domains UK shared web hosting accounts come with an SSL certificate on the server, although if you wish to have your own dedicated SSL certificate, you may do so by contacting our Additional Services Department.
A Sysop is short for "structure operator", and is a generally used term for the administrator of a bulletin board conformity (BBS) or special-interest area of an online service or, historically, the operators of any computer scheme, especially a mainframe computer. The individual responsible for the day-to-day operations of a computer entity or network. In large corporations, this person can be the head of the IS (material systems) department.
A connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits per second. T-1 is most very often used to connect networks to the World Wide Web. T1 lines are usually employed by small and medium-sized companies with heavy network traffic. They can send and receive very large text files, graphics, sounds, and databases very quickly.
A T-3 line consists of 28 T1 lines or 44.736 million bits per second (typically referred to as 45 Mbps). A T-3 line can handle 672 voice conversations. T-3 runs on fiber optic and is generally called FT-3. A T-3 connection is extremely expensive to maintain, and is reserved for only the largest network installations. As with T-1, fractional T-3 is attainable, providing a portion of a T-3 pipe for a fraction of the cost of a full T-3 connection.
(Transmission Control Protocol & net Protocol), TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent. TCP/IP is a communications protocol introduced under contract from the US Department of Defense to World Wide Webwork dissimilar systems. Invented by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn, this de facto UNIX approved is the protocol of the net and has become the global authoritative for communications.
A terabyte is a measure of computer data storage capacity and is one thousand billion (1,000,000,000,000) bytes. It is commonly abbreviated TB.
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A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this often means a keyboard and a display screen an some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer- the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and enables you to type commands to a computer somewhere else. me the code TTY is derived and is almost always used to identify a generic terminal. The console is the main terminal directly linked to the computer. The term terminal is usually employed to mean the unit made by the keyboard and the display. The data stream received from a terminal is very often referred to as [standard] input, ie one refer to what has been entered through the keyboard.
A device that connects a number of terminals (or a number of modems) to a server or host. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) will have a rack of terminal servers, each combined to a rack of modems, that answer incoming data calls. The terminal server accommodates network routing from the modem lines to the network.
Top Level Domain
A Top Level extension (TLD) is the uppermost in the hierarchy of domain names. In a extension, the top level domain name is that part of the domain that is furthest to the right. For example, the "com" in www.ultimate-domains-uk.com. If you are looking to register a extension, you should consider Ultimate Domains UK. We offer domain name registration for only £3.50 per year.
A name, symbol, or other device identifying a product, officially registered and legally restricted to the use of the owner or manufacturer. Trademark law can be different worldwide. If someone registers a domain such as Google.to then Google would need to go to the courts in Tonga to fight to get the name back. Expensive international litigation is one reason why it is important to protect your trademarks before someone else registers the names.
An operating system co-created by AT&T researchers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. Ritchie and Thompson brought out the UNIX operating organization in the year 1969. UNIX has TCP/IP built in, and is therefore one of the most widely used operating systems for servers on the internet. Ultimate Domains UK offers web hosting plans which operate on UNIX including the popular Ultimate Hosting Account.
The Uniform Resource Locator is the address of a resource available on the Internet. For example the URL for the Ultimate Domains UK homepage is http://www.ultimate-domains-uk.com. The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, and the second part specifies the IP address or the extension where the resource is located. URLs could be either absolute (containing the entire address of the resource) or relative (containing only a part of the address).
A worldwide bulletin board combination that can be accessed through the World Wide Web or through many online services. Each newsgroup acts as a public discussion forum and may be read by anyone at any Usenet site worldwide using a newsreader. When a user posts an article to a newsgroup the article is distributed around the Usenet network to those sites carrying the particular newsgroup. There are more than 25,000 USENET discussion groups today.
literally means Unix to Unix Encoding which is a method for converting files from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the internet via e-mail.
An net tool that permits you to search by keyword through gopher titles and directories. The Veronica database could be searched from most major gophermenus. Veronica was originated in 1992 by Steven Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada.
WAN is a group of computer networks bracketed together over long distances. The internet is a WAN. Typical WAN interfaces include plain old telephone service (POTS) lines, digital subscriber lines (DSL), cable, T1/T3, and ISDN. WAN is short for Wide Area Network.
A Web hosting organisation is a business that specialises in hosting Web sites for other companies on their servers. A great example of a web hosting company is Ultimate Domains UK, who is one of the UK's largest web hosting providers. Web hosting is a service that administers Internet consumers with online systems for storing info, pictures, video, or any content accessible via the web. A person does not require a computer or net access to be hosted. In order to receive more advice to do with web hosting services and Ultimate Domains UK, please contact Ultimate Domains UK's support.
A hypertext-based, distributed knowledge classification originally created by researchers at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, to facilitate sharing research material. The Web is a network of servers linked together by a general protocol, allowing access to millions of hypertext resources. It is also known as WWW, W3 and the Web. The term is normally mistakenly used as a synonym for the World Wide Web, but the Web is actually a service that operates over the internet.
WHOIS databases contain nameserver, registrar, and in some cases, full contact information relating to a domain name. Each registrar must maintain a WHOIS database containing all contact instruction for the domains they host. This info is provided free of charge to the public through a search for WHOIS material in that database. If you are looking to see if a extension is available or not, you can do this via a WHOIS search or by visiting Ultimate Domains UK's domain name page.
A zone file is stored on a name server and bestows advice about one or more domains. Each zone file contains a list of DNS records with mappings between domains and IP addresses. These records define the IP address of a extension, the reverse lookup of an IP to other domain names, and contain DNS and mail server information. Zone files are also known as master files.
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